“Throughout the recent history Spain has been one of Europe’s most unique counter terrorists as it first focused on its fights with separatist terrorism which was later superseded by violent jihadism. Interestingly, the events of the last weeks have once again re-catapulted the two threats to the forefront of the Spanish socio-political debate and consciousness.

Almost simultaneously, the country yet again witnessed terrorism arrests of individuals suspected of involvement in violent Catalan separatist entities and saw its National Court (Audiencia Nacional) issue arrest warrants for four Spanish women until recently residing at the Al-Hawl camp, alleged ISIS members and effectively foreign fighters, held in the camps run by the Syrian Democratic Forces in Syria.

After the US has decided to withdraw from Syria and Kurdish forces previously in charge of that camp now occupied with resisting Turkish forces, the fates of these women and children remain unknown.”