Hybrid threats tend to be opportunistic and asymmetric, with antagonists that are quick to capitalise on their successes and learn from their mistakes. Even before considering the institutional and operational responses, countries and alliances need to take a sharp and honest look at their vulnerabilities, as it is far easier to pre-emptively build resilience than to respond in the midst of an attack. In the modern world, after all, non-military threats are every bit as important as military ones, and addressing issues from the adequacy of police and counter-intelligence services to the challenge of corruption will be crucial. Above all, expertise needs to be combined with imagination, because the threat is constantly evolving.

To know more, read the full white paper in the documents section below.