Dr Heather Grabbe is Director of the Open Society European Policy Institute in Brussels. From 2004–2009, she was senior advisor to European Commissioner for Enlargement Olli Rehn, responsible in his cabinet for the Balkans and Turkey. Prior to joining the Commission, she was deputy director of the Centre for European Reform, the London-based think-tank, where she published widely on EU enlargement, foreign policy, democracy in Europe, justice and home affairs.  Her academic career includes teaching at the London School of Economics, and research at Oxford and Birmingham universities, the Royal Institute for International Affairs (Chatham House, London) and the European University Institute (Florence). Among her books are The Constellations of Europe (CER, 2004) and The EU’s Transformative Power: Europeanization through Conditionality in Central and Eastern Europe 1989-2004 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).